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Intercultural Communication and Inclusive Leadership Coaching | Numinos Coaching


06 July 2023
High and Low Power Distance; differences between egalitarian and hierarchical power

Power Distance: Understanding Authority and Leadership in Different Cultures

Have you ever noticed how some cultures show more respect for authority than others? Power distance is deeply rooted in cultural values and influences the dynamics of authority, decision-making, and communication within a society.
Power distance is all about how much a society respects and accepts authority. In high power distance cultures, like many Asian societies, there's a strong emphasis on respecting authority figures and following strict hierarchies. On the other hand, low power distance cultures, often found in the West, value equality and encourage open communication among everyone.
In this blog post, we'll see how power distance shows up in different cultures and what effects it has on society. By learning about how power is distributed in different cultures, we can improve our ability to connect with people from diverse backgrounds.

What Is the Difference Between High and Low Power Distance?

In Western cultures like US and Northern Europe, low power distance is common. Low power distance is also called egalitarian power distribution. In these societies, being equal, independent, and having democracy are very important. People in low level of power distance cultures often question authority and favour open communication.
In contrast, many Eastern cultures, such as those found in Asia and the Middle East, display high power distance. These societies emphasize hierarchical structures, respect for authority, and maintaining harmony. This means decision-making typically occurs at the top, and communication tends to be more indirect and formal.
Power distance varies from culture to culture

Low Power Distance or Egalitarian Culture

Egalitarian power distance is all about reducing inequalities and promoting equality within a society. In cultures that embrace an egalitarian power distance, people believe that everyone should have equal access to power, resources, and opportunities.
They value fairness, equal rights, and strive to eliminate social hierarchies. In such cultures, employees are encouraged to question authority, and decisions are made collectively instead of relying solely on those in positions of power.
Often, low power distance countries are also individualist cultures, which explains the emphasis on individuality and desire to give everyone a voice. 
Egalitarian power distance in the workplace means having flatter organizational structures with fewer hierarchy levels. Managers work as partners with employees instead of being authority figures. This also explains why managers are often addressed in first name basis.
For example, in countries like Sweden and the Netherlands, managers encourage open dialogue among team members, regardless of their positions in the hierarchy. Therefore, employees are more likely to challenge ideas and engage in discussions with their superiors. 
Decisions are often made through consensus-building processes. This approach fosters a sense of ownership, leading to better communication and cooperation within the organization.

High Power Distance or Hierarchical Culture

High power distance refers to societies where there is a significant acceptance of authority and hierarchical structures. In these cultures, people tend to place a lot of importance on respecting and obeying those in positions of power.
Hierarchical cultures are usually collectivist cultures because the goal of a hierarchical structure is to keep peace by managing the amount of power difference in the group. 
This behavior is commonly observed in countries such as China or India, where social hierarchies and cultural norms have a strong influence, leading individuals to demonstrate respect and deference towards those of higher social standing.
In a workplace with high power distance, bosses make the decisions and employees are expected to follow instructions without questioning. Junior employees show respect and obedience to their managers, and decisions are typically made by those in higher positions. 
Managers often sit in their dedicated offices, instead of in an open office setting as in egalitarian cultures. In hierarchical cultures, titles are often used whereas in egalitarian cultures many find the use of titles posh.
This demonstrates how power distance is a strong part of the culture and influences interpersonal dynamics in the workplace.
In hierarchical cultures, employees are expected to follow instructions

Power Distance and Leadership Style

Effective leadership is a crucial component of any organization's success. However, leadership styles can vary significantly across cultures due to the distribution of power and differences in power distance. 
For example, hierarchical style helps maintain order and harmony, but it can stifle creativity, innovation, and independent thinking. Employees may hesitate to provide feedback or express differing opinions as they may feel powerless or undervalued.
Uncertainty avoidance, on the other hand, relates to a society's tolerance for ambiguity and uncertainty. Uncertainty avoidance is about how much people in a culture are afraid of uncertain or unknown situations and try to reduce uncertainties through rules, rituals, and structured systems.
High uncertainty avoidance and power distance are closely linked, as cultures that are more averse to uncertainty also tend to have higher power distance. Individuals tend to rely on established authority and norms to provide a sense of security and reduce uncertainty.
However, it's important to note that while there may be a correlation, power distance and uncertainty avoidance are distinct cultural dimensions that interact in complex ways, shaping different aspects of cultures.
Egalitarian style is all about empowering employees, fostering inclusiveness, and promoting innovation and creativity. Nevertheless, a possible disadvantage of adopting an egalitarian leadership approach is that decision-making may become sluggish and ineffective, particularly if the attitude towards managers becomes overly casual. 
In a truly egalitarian setting, where the value of equality is embraced and consensus building and equal participation are prioritized, the process of making crucial decisions may require more time as it involves thorough discussions and gathering input from every member of the team. This can result in delays and an inability to quickly respond to changing circumstances or make timely decisions.
Additionally, in an egalitarian setting, there may be a lack of clear direction and accountability. Since decision-making is distributed among team members, it can lead to confusion and a lack of decisive action.
Balancing the benefits of collaboration and inclusiveness with the need for efficiency and timely decision-making is crucial in maintaining an effective egalitarian leadership style.

4 Strategies for Navigating Power Distance Differences


To navigate different levels of power distances effectively, developing cultural intelligence and sensitivity is key. Here are four ways to get you started:

Be mindful of cultural norms


Recognize that power distance varies across cultures, and what may be acceptable in one culture might not be in another. Be aware of the power dynamics at play and adapt your communication style accordingly.
Pay attention to both verbal and non-verbal cues during conversations. Give others the space to express their opinions and ideas, and make an effort to understand their perspectives without interrupting or dismissing them.

Foster open dialogue


Encourage open and honest discussions by creating a safe and non-threatening environment. In order to ensure that all voices are heard, it is crucial to establish an environment where individuals from high power distance cultures feel empowered to express their thoughts and ideas without reservation.
Be conscious of the words and phrases you use to ensure they are inclusive and respectful. Avoid using jargon or technical terms that may exclude others who are not familiar with them. Aim for clear and simple language that everyone can understand.
Adapt your communication style to foster open dialogue

Show respect for authority


In high power distance societies, respect for authority figures is crucial. Acknowledge and address individuals with higher positions or titles appropriately, using appropriate honorifics or formalities. 
For instance, addressing someone as "Sir" or using their professional title such as "Doctor" is a sign of respect in these cultures. This demonstrates your understanding of the power dynamics and shows respect for their role.

Bridge the gap


If you notice a significant power distance in a conversation, take the initiative to bridge the gap by finding common ground. Look for shared interests or experiences that can serve as a basis for building rapport and understanding.
Be aware that the role of power distance varies between countries, organizations and the position in the company.
A great way to learn more about the power distance is through Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions and compare the level of power distance between different countries. 
Power distance is a fundamental aspect of cultural diversity, influencing societal structures, communication styles, and leadership dynamics. By understanding and embracing power distance differences, we can foster better cross-cultural interactions with empathy and respect. Let's celebrate our diverse perspectives, learn from one another, and work towards creating inclusive environments where people from all backgrounds can thrive together.





Tanja is a Certified Intercultural Communication Coach and an expert on Work Style Analysis (WSA). With a Master's Degree in Business Administration, specializing in Leadership and People Management, she helps companies and assists leaders in comprehending cultural dimensions and leveraging existing cultural differences to create powerful organizational strengths.

About the Author

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